GCSE outcomes by centre type

These tables and interactive graphs show summaries of GCSE outcomes in England by centre type.

For more explanation of these tables and graphs, click on the Questions and Answers tab.

Click on legend labels above to remove individual centre types

For any feedback on these graphs, please contact [email protected].

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If you need an accessible version of this information to meet specific accessibility requirements, please email [email protected] with details of your request.

1. What do the graphs and tables show?

The graphs and tables show the GCSE outcomes at a choice of grade thresholds by centre type (the type of school or college) for individual subjects. The outcomes are presented as cumulative percentages. This means that outcomes at grade 7/A include grades 7/A and above (ie grades 7, 8 and 9 or A and A*).

2. How were grades awarded in summer 2022?

The aim of awarding in summer 2022 was to seek a midway point between summer 2019 and summer 2021. As in any year, grade boundaries were set based on a combination of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Further information is available on the Ofqual website, in the student guide to exams and formal assessments in 2021 to 2022, and in our blog.

In 2020 and 2021, when GCSE, AS and A level grades were determined by teachers (see also Q3. How were grades awarded in summer 2021 and summer 2020?), national outcomes were higher than prior to the pandemic.

3. How were grades awarded in summer 2021 and summer 2020?

The government determined in January 2021 that many exams and assessments could not be held fairly in summer 2021 as a result of the disruption students have faced due to the pandemic. Teachers were asked instead to submit grades to the exam boards, based on their assessment of what students have shown they know and can do, enabling progression to the next stage of education, training, or employment. The student guide to awarding in summer 2021 gives further information.

The summer 2020 exam series was cancelled due to the measures put in place in response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Students were awarded either the centre assessment grade or the calculated grade, whichever was the higher. Further information about the alternative arrangements for awarding in summer 2020 is available on the Ofqual website.

4. Which subjects have been included?

We have included all GCSE subject groups which were awarded in each year covered by the app. Subjects are grouped using the groupings established by the Joint Council for Qualifications (JCQ). Most groupings contain a single subject but some groupings contain multiple subjects. For example, 'classical subjects' includes Biblical Hebrew, ancient history, classical civilisation, classical Greek and Latin.

5. Which students are included?

We have included all students in England, regardless of age.

6. Which centres are included?

We have only included centres which have entries in a subject group in each year covered by the app in order that comparisons between years are meaningful. This means that the number of centres included will tend to decrease as more years are considered as centres will not always offer the same subjects.

7. Which centre types are included in the graphs?

We have used the following 10 centre types, as categorised in the National Centre Number (NCN) register. Centre types are self-reported by schools, colleges and other exam centres according to the following list of categories:

  1. Academies
  2. Further education establishment
  3. Free schools
  4. Independent school
  5. Secondary comprehensive or middle school
  6. Secondary modern school
  7. Secondary selective school
  8. Sixth form college
  9. Tertiary college
  10. Other (eg college of higher education, university department, tutorial college, language school, special school, pupil referral unit, HM Young Offender Institute, HM Prison, training centre)

We have used the centre type that was reported for the summer 2022 awards and applied this categorisation across all years in the app. This will introduce a small proportion of classification errors for past years where centres have changed categories prior to 2022.

8. Some combinations of subject and centre type don't have many centres in them. Does that matter?

To limit the influence of individual candidates and centres on statistics, which is greater when numbers are small, we have imposed a minimum number of candidates and a minimum number of centres. If there are not more than 100 entries and at least 10 centres in any one centre type it is omitted from the graphs and tables.

Where there are a relatively small number of centres for a particular combination of subject and centre type, the graphs are likely to say more about the individual centres than the overall picture. Such cases should be interpreted with additional caution.

9. Why are 7/A & above or 4/C & above reported instead of A or A to C?

GCSEs in England have been reformed with the process occurring in phases over several years. The reformed GCSEs are graded with a new scale from 9 to 1, with 9 being the highest grade. In the new GCSEs, grades 7 and 4 have been set to align with A and C in the previous specifications. More information on the GCSE reform timetable can be found here. Grades change over time from letters to a mixture of letters and numbers as a result of these reforms. All grades are now on the 9 to 1 scale.

10. Why are there differences between combined science and the other subjects?

Two GCSEs are awarded for combined science so the grades have two numbers separated by a hyphen.

11. Where do these data come from?

Awarding data are supplied to Ofqual by exam boards near to results day. At the point in time Ofqual receive the data, all certificates and entries may not have been fully processed. Additionally, the data do not reflect changes to grades that may occur after results. This alternative data is complete but includes grades following review and therefore introduces a small inconsistency between years as a small proportion of grades are likely to have changed.

For any feedback on these graphs, please contact [email protected].

Return to the Ofqual Analytics home page.

If you need an accessible version of this information to meet specific accessibility requirements, please email [email protected] with details of your request.